DARIAH-DE has developed the following definition of research data in the context of project work
DARIAH-DE understands all those sources / materials and results collected, written, described and / or evaluated in the context of a research and research question in the field of human and cultural sciences, and in machine-readable form for the purpose of archiving, citation and for further processing.
The purpose of this definition is to take account of the special characteristics of human-scientific research and the resulting heterogeneity of the underlying data. The individual workflows reflect in a certain way the processes within a Research Data Lifecyc as they should normally be carried out.
Minimum requirements for digital research data in the context of DARIAH-DE
In order to use the DARIAH-DE services for your own research data, your data should fulfill certain basic requirements. These are usually composed of:
- Reliability / documentation of the creation and raising context
- Machine readability (and thus processability)
- Referencing with the information provided by the author and on legal information regarding their further use (by third parties)
Where can I get more information on research data?
DARIAH-DE would like to continuously develop the information service and provide multimedial services.
In our Youtube-Channel you will find various clips related to research data.
The DHd-Blog informs about current topics and developments.
In the Bibliographie Digital Humanities you will find both introductory works as well as additional titles and thematic fields.
The following external pages contain comprehensive additional information on research data:
- Wiki "Forschungsdaten.org"
- Online Tutorial der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
- Informationsportal forschungsdaten.info
Together with the definition of human-scientific research data, the Research Data Lifecycle (Research Data Cycle) forms the intellectual concept behind the central infrastructure for DARIAH-DE. As part of DARIAH-DE's current funding phase, the repository infrastructure under construction will be expanded to cover a complete Research Data Lifecycle for digital humanities and possibly expand it.
Fundamental processes in the life cycle of research data:
- Planning and creation
- Conservation measures
The DARIAH-DE Data Federation Architecture
The DARIAH-DE Data Federation Architecture (DFA) is the term for basic services provided by DARIAH-DE to cover the basic processes of the Research Data Lifecycle. At the moment, the DFA includes indexing and displaying research data, providing descriptive schemata for collection descriptions and their long-term storage, and comprehensive search functionality for heterogeneous structured data collections and archives. In addition, specific metadata standards are stored and crosswalks are stored between metadata schemas in order to facilitate the mapping of research data of different origins and characteristics.
What are metadata and what are they good for?
Metadata is data or information about data: they describe the actual data (digital files or physical objects), contain information about content, form or author. Several metadata formats exist to structure and process these metadata in a structured manner.
Specific recommendations for data and metadata
Within DARIAH-DE, specific recommendations were made for data and metadata. This was first done from the perspective of the humanities involved in DARIAH-DE. We would like to invite experts from all disciplines of arts and cultural sciences, as well as academics from information sciences and computer science, to actively participate in the expansion and expansion of these recommendations. The recommendations for humanities and cultural disciplines can be found in the Wiki.
Recommendations for research data, tools and metadata in the DARIAH-DE infrastructure
For an overview of various metadata standards, see the recommendations for dealing with data and metadata.
The DCDDM (DARIAH Collection Description Data Model) is a data collection collection model. Institutions and scientists can thus create descriptions of collections that are both human- and machine-readable. The aim of the DCDDM is to provide easy-to-implement policies to help you create, publish, and manage collections. Collections can consist of physical objects (books, pictures, coins) as well as digital objects (digitized texts, database entries). The documentation can be found in the Wiki.
The data model is used in the Collection Registry for the collection descriptions there.
Why should I license my data?
The Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) advises in its "Recommendations for the safeguarding of good scientific practice" to keep primary data on "durable and secure media" in the institution which produces it for ten years. However, the traceability of scientific results is not the only way to archive data. The provision of data is at least as important as a justified claim. A free, overregional and long-term access to data raises a number of legal issues, which can be regulated by means of licenses. Among other things, they provide answers on what scientists can (or do not) do with the research data of others.
The portal „Forschungslizenzen.de“, which has been established within the scope of the DARIAH-DE project, provides an overview of research licenses and presents them in a practical way using projects from the humanities. The aim is to provide an overview, to network contacts and to facilitate the introduction into the topic.
The portal responds to two requirements, which have become clear when working in DARIAH-DE: on the one hand, the desire for the exchange of knowledge for the licensing of research data, as well as the need for clarification and consulting work regarding the corresponding decision-making processes.
The selection of the presented examples focuses on the field of digital humanities. The texts are taken from current publications on the subject, the contents are supplemented by new developments. In contributions to individual projects, the contact information is presented by contact persons of the participating institutions. In this way, researchers are encouraged to exchange ideas and share experiences with existing projects.
DARIAH-DE publications on the topic
A detailed discussion on copyright and recommendations for standard licenses for research data can be found in the DARIAH-DE Working Papers:
Nikolaos Beer, Kristin Herold, Maurice Heinrich, Wibke Kolbmann, Thomas Kollatz, Matteo Romanello, Sebastian Rose, Felix Falco Schäfer, Niels-Oliver Walkowski: "Datenlizenzen für geisteswissenschaftliche Forschungsdaten - Rechtliche Bedingungen und Handlungsbedarf". DARIAH-DE Working Papers Nr. 6. Göttingen: DARIAH-DE, 2014. URN: urn:nbn:de:gbv:7-dariah-2014-4-8
Paul Klimpel, John H. Weitzmann: "Forschen in der digitalen Welt. Juristische Handreichung für die Geisteswissenschaften". DARIAH-DE Working Papers Nr. 12. Göttingen: DARIAH-DE, 2015. URN: urn:nbn:de:gbv:7-dariah-2015-5-0
DARIAH-DE is committed to the transparent dissemination of digital research methods and the tools used for this, as they are, for example, recorded by DIRT. DARIAH-DE would like to contribute to the visibility - and also to the self-understanding - of the digital spiritual sciences. The creation of a SKOS-based taxonomy of DH procedures is an important step towards networking the research community and also for assigning and documenting the results achieved.
Fig. 1: An example of the relationship between tools, methods, and methods
For example, in a collaboration with NeDiMAH, a comprehensive ontology is being worked out, which will allow to construct a complex model for the relationship of research fields, methods, institutions and research data and results.
The described endeavor aims at a stronger formalization of our understanding of the digital humanities and can contribute to the development of a research infrastructure.
Fig. 2: A visualization of the TADiRAH taxonomy for the formalization of methods of digital humanities. Go to TaDiRAH on GitHub